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KIRKUS REVIEW

The accuracy of quoted material is paramount and the accuracy of quotations from living persons is especially sensitive. To ensure accuracy, the text of quoted material is best taken from and cited to the original source being quoted. If this is not possible, then the text may be taken from a reliable secondary source ideally one that includes a citation to the original. No matter where you take the quoted text from, it is important to make clear the actual source of the text, as it appears in the article.

Partisan secondary sources should be viewed with suspicion as they may misquote or quote out of context. In such cases, look for neutral corroboration from another source. Any analysis or interpretation of the quoted material, however, should rely on a secondary source see WP:No original research.

A statement that all or most scientists or scholars hold a certain view requires reliable sourcing that directly says that all or most scientists or scholars hold that view. Otherwise, individual opinions should be identified as those of particular, named sources. Editors should avoid original research especially with regard to making blanket statements based on novel syntheses of disparate material. Stated simply, any statement in Wikipedia that academic consensus exists on a topic must be sourced rather than being based on the opinion or assessment of editors.

Review articles , especially those printed in academic review journals that survey the literature, can help clarify academic consensus. How accepted, high-quality reliable sources use a given source provides evidence, positive or negative, for its reliability and reputation. The more widespread and consistent this use is, the stronger the evidence. For example, widespread citation without comment for facts is evidence of a source's reputation and reliability for similar facts, whereas widespread doubts about reliability weigh against it. If outside citation is the main indicator of reliability, particular care should be taken to adhere to other guidelines and policies, and to not represent unduly contentious or minority claims.

The goal is to reflect established views of sources as far as we can determine them. Some sources may be considered reliable for statements as to their author's opinion, but not for statements asserted as fact. For example, an inline qualifier might say "[Author XYZ] says A prime example of this is opinion pieces in sources recognized as reliable.

When using them, it is best to clearly attribute the opinions in the text to the author and make it clear to the reader that they are reading an opinion. Otherwise reliable news sources—for example, the website of a major news organization—that publish in a blog-style format for some or all of their content may be as reliable as if published in standard news article format. There is an important exception to sourcing statements of fact or opinion: Never use self-published books, zines , websites, webforums, blogs and tweets as a source for material about a living person , unless written or published by the subject of the biographical material.

Breaking-news reports often contain serious inaccuracies. As an electronic publication, Wikipedia can and should be up to date, but Wikipedia is not a newspaper and it does not need to go into all details of a current event in real time. It is better to wait a day or two after an event before adding details to the encyclopedia, than to help spread potentially false rumors.

This gives journalists time to collect more information and verify claims, and for investigative authorities to make official announcements. The On the Media Breaking News Consumer's Handbook [17] contains several suggestions to avoid spreading unreliable and false information, such as distrusting anonymous sources and unconfirmed reports, as well as reports attributed to other news media; seeking multiple sources; seeking eyewitness reports; being wary of potential hoaxes, and being skeptical of reports of possible additional attackers in mass shootings.

Claims sourced to initial news reports should be immediately replaced with better-researched ones as soon as they are published, especially if those original reports contained inaccuracies. When editing a current-event article, keep in mind recentism bias. These templates should not be used, however, to mark articles on subjects or persons in the news; if they were, hundreds of thousands of articles would have such a template, but to no significant advantage see also Wikipedia:No disclaimers in articles.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Content guideline for determining the reliability of a source. For other uses, see WP:RS disambiguation. It is a generally accepted standard that editors should attempt to follow, though it is best treated with common sense , and occasional exceptions may apply. Any substantive edit to this page should reflect consensus. When in doubt, discuss first on the talk page. Main page: Wikipedia:Identifying reliable sources medicine.

The topic of this article may not meet Wikipedia's general notability guideline. Please help to establish notability by citing reliable secondary sources that are independent of the topic and provide significant coverage of it beyond a mere trivial mention. If notability cannot be established, the article is likely to be merged , redirected , or deleted. Citing sources Identifying reliable sources medicine Fringe theories No original research. Scholarly Open Access.

Archived from the original on 5 January The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 11, Retrieved April 11, Archived from the original on April 13, Archived from the original on 8 November Retrieved 2 November Salon Media Group. Archived from the original on October 16, Retrieved October 17, Scholarly definition document. Archived from the original on November 5, Retrieved September 22, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Archived from the original on September 10, New York Magazine.

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Archived from the original on November 16, Retrieved November 15, The Charleston Advisor. Archived PDF from the original on 4 March Retrieved 7 January Archived from the original on 17 January Public Health Nutrition. Archived PDF from the original on 17 November Retrieved 12 January Archived from the original on Retrieved Wikipedia key policies and guidelines.

Five pillars What Wikipedia is not Ignore all rules. Notability Autobiography Citing sources Reliable sources medicine Do not include copies of lengthy primary sources Plagiarism Don't create hoaxes Fringe theories Patent nonsense External links. Assume good faith Conflict of interest Disruptive editing Do not disrupt Wikipedia to illustrate a point Etiquette Gaming the system Please do not bite the newcomers Courtesy vanishing Responding to threats of harm. Administrators Banning Blocking Page protection. Categories, lists, and navigation templates Categorization Template namespace. List of all policies and guidelines List of policies List of guidelines Lists of attempts in creating fundamental principles.

Wikipedia referencing. Verifiability Biographies of living persons Reliable sources Medicine Citing sources Scientific citations. Citation needed Find sources Combining sources Offline sources Referencing styles. Footnotes Parenthetical referencing Punctuation and footnotes Shortened footnotes Nesting footnotes. Reference-tags Citations quick reference Introduction to referencing Referencing with citation templates Referencing without using templates Referencing dos and don'ts Citing Wikipedia. Cite link labels Citation tools Cite errors Cite messages Converting between references formats Reference display customization References and page numbers.

Wikipedia Library. Categories : Wikipedia content guidelines Wikipedia reliable sources Wikipedia verifiability Wikipedia sources. Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links Project pages with short description Wikipedia semi-protected project pages. Namespaces Project page Talk. Views Read View source View history. In other projects Wikiversity. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

This page documents an English Wikipedia content guideline. This page in a nutshell: This guideline discusses how to identify reliable sources. The policy on sourcing is Wikipedia:Verifiability. This requires inline citations for any material challenged or likely to be challenged, and for all quotations. Guidelines list Policies list. Assume good faith Conflict of interest Courtesy vanishing Disruptive editing Don't bite the newbies Don't edit to make a point Etiquette Don't game the system User pages Other behavioral guidelines WMF friendly space policy.

Talk page guidelines Signatures. Gurr, T. Some characteristics of political terrorism in the s. In Stohl, M. Politics of terrorism. NY: Marcel Dekker. Empirical research on political terrorism: The state of the art and how it might be improved. In Slater, R. Current Perspectives on International Terrorism , — NY: St. Haas, P. Banning chlorofluorocarbons: Epistemic community efforts to protect stratospheric ozone. International Organization, 46 , — Introduction: Epistemic communities and international policy coordination.

International Organization, 46 , 1— Herman, E. Real terror network: Terrorism in fact and propaganda. MA: South End Press. Manufacturing consent. NY: Pantheon. Heyman, E. Imitation by terrorists: Quantitative approaches to the study of diffusion patterns in transnational terrorism. NY: Pergamon.

Jenkins, B. Reprinted as State Department Report. Terrorism in the 80s. Embassies under siege: A review of 48 embassies takeover. Armed Forces Journal International, , 39— Numbered lives: Some statistical observations from 77 international hostage episodes. Johnson, C.

Perspectives on terrorism. In Laqueur, W. Terrorism reader: a historical anthology. PA: Temple University Press. Kochen, M. Distribution of scientific experts as recognized by peer consensus. Scientometrics, 4 , 45— Kupperman, R. Terrorism: Threat, reality, response.

Terrorist international: The past is prologue and America is vulnerable. Across the Board , February, 50— Lakos, A. International terrorism: A bibliography. CO: Westview Press. Laqueur, W. Futility of terrorism. Terrorism - A balance sheet. Terrorism reader: A Historical anthology , — Lee, M.

Unreliable sources: A guide to detecting bias in news media. NY: Carol Publishing Group. McGrath, J.

Wikipedia:Reliable sources - Wikipedia

Small group research: A synthesis and critique of the field. Merton, R. IL: University Chicago Press. Mickolus, E. Literature of terrorism: A selectively annotated bibliography. CO: Greenwood Press. Terrorism, — A selectively annotated bibliography. NY: Greenwood. Responding to terrorism: Basic and applied research. In Shultz, R.

Responding to terrorist threat — Moll, J. Characterization of the alcohol research literature. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 38 , — Narin, F.


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Evaluative bibliometrics. NJ: Computer Horizons, Inc. Nelson, P. Communication among scientists and engineers. MS: Health Lexington Books. Ontiveros, S. Global terrorism: A historical bibliography. Paull, P.

Helping Students Identify Fake News with the Five C's of Critical Consuming

International terrorism: The propaganda war. CA: University of San Francisco. Master Thesis. Possony, S.

Unreliable Sources: A Guide to Detecting Bias in News Media

Price, D. Little science, big science. NY: Columbia University. Collaboration in an invisible college. American Psychologist, 21 , — Rapoport, D. In Rapoport, D. Inside the terrorist organizations , 2—10, NY: Columbia University. Reid, E. An analysis of terrorism literature: A bibliometric and content analysis study.

University Southern California, Dissertation. Using on-line data bases to analyze the development of a specialty: Case study of terrorism. Proceedings of the National On-line Conference , — NJ: Learning Information. Evolution of a body of knowledge: A case study of terrorism research. Rogers, E. Diffusion of innovation. NY: Free Press. Sandler, T. American Political Science Review, 77 , 36— Schmid, A.

Violence as communication. London: SAGE. Political terrorism: A research guide to concepts, theories, data bases and literature. NJ: Transaction Books. Political terrorism: A new guide to actors, authors, concepts. Sloan, S. Simulating terrorism. OK: University Oklahoma Press. Smith, J. Idea brokers: Think tanks and the rise of the policy elite. Soley, L.


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News shapers: The sources who explain the news. NY: Praeger. Sterling, C. Terrorism, tracing the international network. New York Times Magazine, , 16— Terror network: The secret war of international terrorism. NJ: Holt, Rinehart. Terrorist network. Atlantic, , 37— Stohl, M.

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Introduction: Myths and realities of political terrorism. Politics of terrorism , 1— Responding to the terrorist threat: Fashions and fundamentals. Politics of Terrorism , —