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About this product. Stock photo. Pre-owned: lowest price The lowest-priced item that has been used or worn previously. Former Library book. Great condition for a used book! Minimal wear. Shipped to over one million happy customers. See details. See all 2 pre-owned listings. Buy It Now. Add to cart. Be the first to write a review About this product. About this product Product Information For over 40 years Canadian orders, decorations, and medals have been used to recognise exemplary citizens for their outstanding contributions to our country and to the world.

Although Canada is a relatively young country, we are fortunate to have one of the most comprehensive honours systems in the world. From the honours of New France to the many British medals awarded to Canadians prior to , the various elements of the modern Canadian honours system are explained. The Order of Canada French : Ordre du Canada is the country's second highest civilian honour for merit and is administered by the Governor General-in-Council, on behalf of the monarch of Canada. For each grade, there is an extraordinary category reserved for those members of the Royal Family nominated and approved for appointment.


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Upon taking office, governors general and viceregal consorts become Extraordinary Companions for life or until removal from the order. For each grade, there is an extraordinary category reserved for those members of the Royal Family in the Canadian Forces nominated and approved for appointment. Upon taking office, governors general become Extraordinary Commanders for life or until removal from the order. The Royal Victorian Order French : Ordre royal de Victoria is a dynastic order established in by Queen Victoria to recognise those who performed exemplary personal service for the sovereign; the order's day is 20 June, the date of Victoria's accession to the throne, and its motto is Victoria.

John Eye Hospital in Jerusalem and St. John Ambulance. The order traces its origins to the Knights Hospitaller of the Crusades , who served the Abbey of St. Mary's small hospital for sick pilgrims in Jerusalem in the 12th century, it was established in the United Kingdom in and given a royal charter by Queen Victoria in , [56] and has existed in Canada in some form for many years, [57] but was only officially brought into the Canadian honours system in The governor general is the Prior and Chief Officer in Canada, while the lieutenant governors serve as Vice-Prior in their respective province; [58] each is also automatically appointed as a Knight or Dame of Justice in case of the Prior and his or her spouse, or a Knight or Dame of Grace in the case of lieutenant governors upon being sworn into their viceregal office.

Spouses of lieutenant governors are made Officers. Currently, there are approximately 5, active Canadian members in the Order, [59] induction being granted by nomination only to Canadian citizens or permanent residents at or over the age of 18; this is done at the discretion of the Sovereign Head of the Order, Queen Elizabeth II, on the advice of the Prior. Esquires are not members of the Order but instead members of the Priory. Decorations also entitle the recipient to post-nominal letters.

The military valour decorations were created on 2 February by Queen Elizabeth II, on the advice of her Cabinet under then prime minister Brian Mulroney. The Victoria Cross post-nominal letters VC , French : Croix de Victoria is the highest award for valour available to members of the Canadian Forces of any rank, in any service, and allies serving under or with Canadian military command.

Based on the British version of the same medal, it is only awarded for extraordinary valour and devotion to duty while facing a hostile force.

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Established on 1 May by Queen Elizabeth II, on the advice of her Cabinet headed by Pierre Trudeau , the bravery decorations are awarded to any person who risked his or her life to save or protect another person; it is not necessary that the incident take place in Canada, and no particular person must be Canadian, but it is required that at least one individual involved in the occurrence be a Canadian citizen.

Nominations must be made within two years of the incident, or within two years after a court or a coroner has concluded its review on the circumstances surrounding the incident or act of bravery, and each decoration may be awarded posthumously. The Cross of Valour post-nominal letters CV , French : Croix de la vaillance is the highest ranking of the Canadian bravery decorations, [70] and is awarded for "acts of the most conspicuous courage in circumstances of extreme peril.

The meritous service decorations are each divided into military and civilian categories, which each may be awarded to both Canadians and non-Canadians; the set of awards was initially formed on 11 June by Queen Elizabeth II, [75] on the advice of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, but consisted of decorations available only to Canadian Forces personnel; it was on 6 June that the civilian classifications were added.

Canada has various types of medals, some part of the official honours system and others not; those in the former category tend to be related to state organisations, such as police forces, fire protection , or the military. These can be further sub-categorised into long service and campaign medals. Others are awarded to military and civilians alike for anniversaries—the Canadian Centennial or the Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II, for example—or for community service.

Still others are awarded by international organisations and integrated into the Canadian honours structure; the United Nations Medals and North Atlantic Treaty Organization medals, for example; as medals are awarded more widely than orders or decorations, they are typically presented by higher-ranking officials in the organization the recipient is a part of.

Within the Canadian system of honours are medals that specifically recognise death or severe injury in the course of military service; the Memorial Cross French : Croix du Souvenir was created in by King George V , it is to be awarded to the mother , widow , widower, or next of kin of any member of the Canadian Forces who loses his or her life in active service, including peacekeeping, and other such international operations. Canada's campaign medals are a continuation of the tradition of the monarch recognising service in a designated military operation or performance of duty in a geographical theatre; save for the General Campaign Stars and Medals, each is associated with a particular conflict; the general star and medal are issued for any active service in a combat zone, which one or ones being distinguished by additional clasps that are worn on the medal's ribbon.

Such medals presently recognised in the Canadian honours system are:. Canadians earlier qualified for British campaign medals , though these awards were, at the time, not foreign to Canada; [81] [82] [83] some were created specifically for Canada, such as the Canadian General Service Medal , which was issued in to recognise active participation in defending the country from the Fenian raids and later in suppressing the Red River Rebellion.

Until , the practice for coronation and jubilee medals was for authorities in the United Kingdom to decide on a total number of medallions to be produced and allocate how many were to be distributed to each of the British Empire and Crown dependencies and possessions, and later Commonwealth of Nations countries.

From that point, the award of the medals was at the discretion of the local government authority; such medals are awarded to Canadians who have been deemed to have made a significant contribution to their fellow citizens, their community or to Canada. So that all regions of the country are recognised equally, the federal, provincial, and civic governments all forward names to Rideau Hall, as do private organizations in the fields of the arts, sports, philanthropy, and charity; the full membership of the Order of Canada and Order of Military Merit, as well as all winners of Canadian bravery decorations will typically also receive commemorative medals automatically, while for members of the Canadian Forces, merit with length of service and prestige of current appointment is considered.

The Canadian Forces Decoration post-nominal letters CD is given members of the Canadian Forces of all ranks who have completed twelve years of military service.

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By convention, it is also given to the Governor General of Canada upon his or her appointment as viceroy, which includes the designation of the title of Commander-in-Chief in and over Canada. Despite its name, the Canadian Forces Decoration is a medal as opposed to a decoration. The Canadian provinces each have their own internal honours system, though they differ in some ways from their federal counterpart. British Columbia was the first to create a provincial honour in However, after the establishment of the Canadian honours system in , other provinces moved to initiate their own systems after the federal government refused to do so on their behalf.

An agreement was eventually reached around on the placement of the provincial honours in the Canadian order of precedence for orders, decorations, and medals. State honours bestowed upon a Canadian by a foreign government must be approved by the Governor-General-in-Council before the insignia, decoration, or medal may be worn; those for honours bestowed by other Commonwealth countries are worn, in the order of date of appointment or award, following all those for Canadian honours, should the recipient have any. The same from countries not in the Commonwealth are worn after those from Commonwealth countries, again in order of date of appointment or award.

However, the insignia of orders, as well as medals and decorations, within the Imperial i. British honours system that were received by a Canadian prior to 1 June have a different order of wear, mixed with the designated order for Canadian honours. Canadians remain eligible for appointment into the Order of the Companions of Honour , as its statutes set aside a specific number of the order's total 65 places for residents of Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom, and 11 for those from any other Commonwealth country.

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Appointments are made on the recommendation of the appropriate cabinet ; the order currently has two Canadian members— John de Chastelain and Margaret MacMillan , who were nominated by the Cabinet of the United Kingdom. A number of distinctly Canadian titles have been granted by the sovereign; these include with existent ones in italics :. Members of the Canadian Royal Family , other than the sovereign, also hold peerages, though these were granted by letters patent issued by the sovereign of the United Kingdom and are used in Canada as courtesy titles.

Andrews since her marriage to George Windsor , who uses the courtesy title Earl of St. Andrews, and Baroness Downpatrick, [98] though her eldest son, Edward , also a citizen of Canada and the present Lord Downpatrick, and his wife, if any, will then use the titles Earl and Countess of St. Andrews as a courtesy title and their eldest son, if any, would be known as Lord Downpatrick. There are also Baronets of Nova Scotia. Created between and , these baronets technically represent the baronets of Canada.

The Canadian Heraldic Authority , which grants armorial bearings coats of arms , flags , and badges to Canadian citizens, permanent residents, and corporate bodies, forms a part of the Canadian honours system; the granting of arms is regarded as an honour from the monarch, via the governor general, and thus are bestowed only on those whom the Chief Herald has deemed individuals worthy of receiving a grant of arms. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Canadian honours system. Main article: Order of Merit. Main article: Order of Canada.

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Main article: Order of Military Merit Canada. Main article: Order of Merit of the Police Forces. Main article: Royal Victorian Order. Main article: Order of Saint John chartered Main article: Meritorious Service Decoration. Main article: Orders, decorations, and medals of the Canadian provinces. See also: Canadian peers and baronets. History portal Canada portal. Archived from the original on 30 November Retrieved 11 July Queen's Printer for Nova Scotia. Retrieved 7 August Exploring Nova Scotia. Halifax: Formac Publishing Company.

In Brown, George Williams ed. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. I — online ed. University of Toronto Press. Canadian Monarchist News. Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada. Summer 26 : 10— Archived from the original PDF on 8 July Retrieved 11 November The Queen's Other Realms. Annandale: Federation Press. Rideau Hall.

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CFAO Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on 11 March Retrieved 14 May Christopher McCreery.


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